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Handle carefully and store in original labeled containers out of the reach of children, pets, and livestock. It may also be found in cedar, Douglas fir, pine, and yew when those plants are grown nearby an infested hemlock. Elongate hemlock scale on hemlock needles: Elongate hemlock scale on hemlock (left, middle (adelgid circled)) and fir (right): Needle discoloration on hemlock (left) and fir (right): Note: other pathogens, pests and processes will cause needle yellowing. Do not contaminate forage, streams, or ponds. The scale covers are waxy and may be so numerous that the needles have a whitewashed appearance. Two small wasp parasitoids, the lady beetle, Chilocorus stigma, and several species of lacewings are natural enemies of this scale insect that provide some population reduction. Safari Insecticide is a new generation, super-systemic neonicotinoid with quick uptake and knockdown of HWA and a broad spectrum of other major landscape and ornamental pests. The elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, and a circular hemlock scale, Nuculaspis tsugae (Marlatt), (Fig. 566 pp. Other pests and issues aside from HWA can affect the health of hemlocks; however, as HWA is the hemlock pest most likely to cause tree mortality, this document only addresses HWA chemical treatments. This invasi… But they’re all sap-sucking invaders who can spread a wide variety of plant diseases, and nobody wants to discover them on their plants! One female may produce a total of 20 eggs in a lifetime. As of May 2017, hemlock woolly adelgid (also referred to as HWA) had been found in localized areas of Allegan, Muskegon, Oceana and Ottawa counties, and additional surveys are underway. The elongate hemlock scale female, which would normally be seen if an infestation is present, is dark brown, longer than wide, and typically found on the underside of the needles. Read the Label. Cultural practices that reduce moisture stress and promote general tree health may prolong survival. Armored scale insects do not feed on the contents of vascular cells. There are many crawlers from May through June. There is an abundance of crawlers from late May through early June. Whether flat against leaves or fruit, or lumpy bumps on branches or stems, this widespread superfamily of insects is well over 8000 species strong. The flattened, elongate, light yellow brown to brownish orange waxy cover of the adult female is about 1.5 mm long. The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an invasive insect pest that affects eastern and Carolina hemlock trees. In three to four weeks eggs hatch into first instar nymphs called crawlers that migrate to new needles on the same plant. Central Maryland 566 pp. By entering your email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension. View our privacy policy. The flattened, elongate, light yellow brown to brownish orange waxy cover of the adult female is about 1.5 mm long. The waxy covers of this species can be observed on the lower needle surface as well as on new cones. This insect is typically found on the underside of needles and therefore may be difficult to detect. Get notified when we have news, courses, or events of interest to you. Elongate Hemlock Scale- Beyond Pest Control is a fast reliable pest control company, We've been in the business since 1971. It occurs in many states in the eastern U.S., including Pennsylvania. There, EHS primarily preys on the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) that dot those Atlantic/Appalachian states. If the adelgid is not controlled, infested trees will decline and eventually die, usually within four to 10 years. Introduction The elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa), is an introduced pest from Asia. Maintaining healthy trees may reduce the chances of an increase in the population of this pest. There are several key insect and mite pest species that feed on hemlock foliage. Adult females may live up to one year. The elongate hemlock scale, sometimes known as the fiorinia scale, is a serious armored scale insect pest on ornamental and forest hemlock trees in Pennsylvania. Read and follow directions and safety precautions on labels. Male covers are similar but smaller. The scale is only known to feed on Canada balsam fir ( Abies canadensis ), grand fir ( Abies grandis ), Colorado blue spruce ( Picea pungens ), douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga taxifolia ), eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis ), and western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla ). Dispersal of crawlers over large distances usually occurs by wind currents or on the feet or plumage of birds. The adult female's body beneath the waxy cover, eggs, and crawler stage are yellow. The elongate hemlock scale is in a group of insects called “armored scales”. Translucent, oval eggs occur beneath the scale covering of the female. To control any of the above scale insects, a 3% dormant rate of horticultural oil may be applied in late February to early March, or before budbreak in the early spring. Control of the elongate hemlock scale using sprays is complicated by two factors: With the exception … In western North Carolina, hemlocks and true firs including Fraser fir are its most common hosts. Scales injure host plants by inserting their threadlike, piercing-sucking mouthparts into needles and withdraw vital nutrients necessary for plant growth from mesophyll cells. The white, waxy cover of the male is smaller. Though systemic insecticides in the class of neonicotinoids can be harmful to bees, when applied to the trunk of the tree, exposure is limited. Pest description and damage Hemlock scale feed on the needles of Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and spruces (especially Colorado blue). As with most other armored scales, elongate hemlock sc… DCNR has been releasing a biological control agent for elongate hemlock scale, as well as using a systemic insecticide to reduce … Lyon. Scales rarely kill a plant by themselves but may predispose plants to attack from wood-boring insects or open up wounds that provide entry sites for plant pathogens. The elongate hemlock scale, sometimes known as the fiorinia scale, is a serious armored scale insect pest of hemlock, Tsuga spp., on ornamental and forest trees in Pennsylvania. When this condition is present, it may cause uninformed individuals to misdiagnose this as hemlock woolly adelgid. It's important to accurately identify what pest species or causal organism is present when maintaining the health of hemlocks. 1991. Under the SLN label, Safari should be applied as a basal trunk spray at a rate of 9.0 oz per gallon of water. When closely examining infested hemlock needles, adult males may look like tiny wasp parasitoids as they crawl across the needles. Hemlock Woolly Adelgid is a small wingless insect which has piercing mouthparts to feed in the xylem of the small hemlock twigs. 1) were accidentally introduced into the vicinity of New York City from Japan at the turn Of this century and have subsequently spread into several northeastern states (Weiss 1914, Ferris 1936). They mate and the fertilized female produces eggs under her scale cover. Though commonly associated with hemlocks, EHS can feed on many species of conifers including firs, pines, spruces, cedars, and Douglas fir. two armored scale insects from Asia. Like other armored scales, it does not feed in the vascular tissue. Male and female scales develop differently and have different protective coverings. The elongate hemlock scale (also known as EHS) that hitched a ride to Minnesota likely came from a processor in North Carolina, where the invasive insect has long been a problem. Authored by: Gregory A. Hoover, Sr. Extension Associate. Closeup of elongate hemlock on needlesPhoto: Eric R. Day, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Since that time, EHS has spread to 15 states in the eastern US. The white, waxy cover of the male is smaller. In early spring the females deposit eggs beneath their waxy covers and may continue to lay eggs through early summer. Effective timing includes spring applications before bud-break or … Johnson, W.T. JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. Hemlock scale feeds on the undersides of the needles of several species of trees. It is believed that this armored scale insect was unintentionally introduced into the United States from Japan. Elongate Hemlock Scale (Fiorinia externa) Fiorinia externa, also referred to as elongate hemlock scale or fiorina scale, is an insect native to Japan that infests eastern hemlock, northern Japanese hemlock, Carolina hemlock, fir, and spruce. Adult scale are round to oval, dark gray or black, and about 2 mm (0.1 inch) in diameter. Sometimes waxy secretions from settled crawlers may build into a mass of tangled strands. Be sure the product you select is labeled for treating adelgids. Insects That Feed on Trees and Shrubs. They feed, with their tube-like mouthparts, within the vascular system, where nutrients and fluids are transported. Drought stress and over-fertilizing with nitrogen contribute to scale insect population increase. Why do we need this? and H.H. Elongate hemlock scale is an armored scale, non-native to the United States and first observed in New York in 1908. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. Scale insects are small pests that feed on hemlock trees, and cause a waxy substance to transfer to hemlock needles, giving them a mosaic appearance. The male cover is elongate, white, and about 1.5 mm long. Follow All Safety Precautions. Bait treatments and insecticides can be used to control ants in the outside nest. Elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa Ferris, an invasive scale in the USA, is native to Japan and China that is a pest of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carrière) in the eastern United States. Females have three developmental life stages after the egg, and males have five. Arborist Advice Elongate Hemlock Scale is a species of scale insects that is armored with a hard, waxy covering. Although Eastern hemlock is most heavily damaged, heavy infestations also build up on Carolina hemlock, Japanese hemlock, yews, spruces, and firs. 1967, Stimmel 1980). Effective management of this key pest is extremely difficult since all stages of development may be present during the growing season. The overlap of these generations produces needle scales throughout the summer. REC, Dogwood Insect Pests: Identification and Management, Flowering Dogwood Trees: Selection, Care, and Management of Disease Problems, Why Are Leyland Cypress Trees Turning Brown, Azaleas and Rhododendrons: Common Diseases and Abiotic Problems, Boxwood: Preventing and Managing Common Pests and Diseases, Diagnosing Problems of Azaleas and Rhododendrons, Ornamental Fruit Trees: Preventing, Diagnosing, and Managing Problems. REC, Western Maryland Adult females are soft-bodied, legless, wingless, and are enclosed in an elongate cover that is light yellow to brown, translucent, and about 2 mm long. Short-lived populations in Ontario have been identified and eliminated. Hemlocks contribute to watershed quality and provide a unique micro-environment with a cool habitat for many species of birds, insects, and mammals. In general, avoid using contact insecticides as much as possible as they will often kill the naturally occurring enemies of scale insects. A heavy infestation of elongate hemlock scales. LEARN HOW TO STOP THE INVASIVE SPOTTED LANTERNFLY, Coronavirus: Information and resources for the Extension Community, Save For Later Print Available in Spanish, Eric R. Day, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, A 2% summer rate of horticultural oil may be applied to control crawlers in the summer (June and August), although do not spray if temperatures are above 85 degrees F. This may not be as effective in controlling the elongate hemlock scale,Fiorinia externa. When mature, males emerge as tiny winged insects, mate with the female, and then die. Scale typically are found as small bumps on the underside of needles. Feeding injury causes needles to develop yellow banding on the top of infested needles. Elongate Hemlock Scale is an exotic scale insect that prefers hemlock, spruce and fir but will also feed on cedar, pine, and yew. This species overwinters as fertilized females or eggs. See All Pest, Disease and Weed Identification, See All Beer, Hard Cider, and Distilled Spirits, See All Community Planning and Engagement. Perhaps the biggest pest of Hemlock trees is the Hemlock woolly adelgid. Safari) is very effective in suppressing elongate hemlock scale and will have less of an impact on the bio-allies if applied as a trunk application or soil drench. The waxy covers of this species can be observed on the lower needle surface as well as on new cones. When closely examining infested hemlock needles, adult males may look like tiny wasp parasitoids as they crawl across the needles. Adult male scales only have one pair of wings. Soil-injected systemic insecticides used to manage hemlock woolly adelgid are not effective in managing this species of armored scale insect. They are long-living, shade tolerant conifers that usually grow in groups or are assembled with other tree species. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Hemlock woolly adelgid is established in isolated locations in the western Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Treatments for hemlock woolly adelgid If you have confirmed that one or more of your hemlock trees is infested with hemlock woolly adelgid, consider treating them with a systemic insecticide. When they settle to feed, the crawlers lose their legs and excrete an amber-colored, oval covering. Originally from Japan, it was first discovered in the United States in Long Island, New York in 1908. The covers of the adult females are elongated, oval and translucent to light brown. Management may be difficult with contact insecticides for this pest since the life stages overlap throughout the growing season. Excessive loss of plant fluid reduces the growth and health of the plant. The first choice to make is whether to use a systemic or non-systemic type of treatment, and there are quite a few products to choose from in each category. Individuals that develop from these eggs mature and overwinter. Symptoms the host tree experiences include: New York: John Wiley & Sons. The scale has long-lived adult females that reproduce slowly over much of the year, leading to a population with highly overlapping life stages. Elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) is another non-native insect pest of eastern hemlock in the U.S. The elongate hemlock scale (Fiorinia externa) is native to Japan and was first detected in the US in Queens, New York over a century ago. The crowns of infested trees may … Elongate hemlock scale has a piercing-sucking mouthpart, which it uses to feed on cell contents within conifer needles. 560 pp.Pirone, P.P. These waxy strands may be so abundant that it gives the lower surface of infested needles a white appearance. There are several options available to homeowners to treat HWA. Immature scale (crawlers) are green to yellow. In cases were elongate hemlocks scale is more prevalent this can be a good alternative or supplement to a spray program. Research has demonstrated that nitrogen fertilization of hemlocks enhanced population increases of this armored scale. This pest occurs in Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Virginia. Author: Mary Kay Malinoski, University of Maryland Extension Specialist, Home and Garden Information Center (retired)and John Davidson, Extension Entomologist, University of Maryland (retired). Frequently, this key pest is found on the same hemlock tree with hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae. This injury causes needles to drop prematurely giving the crown of an infested tree a thin appearance. Mention of trade names in this publication does not constitute an endorsement by the University of Maryland Extension. Pesticides are poisonous. Scale feed on the needles by sucking … Another four weeks is required to reach maturity. Elongate hemlock scale undergoes one to two overlapping generations per year with more generations occurring in warmer climates (Talerico et al. Signs of elongate hemlock scale include a yellow banding on the top of infested needles which can lead to premature needle drop. Ew, scale insects! 1978, Diseases & Pests of Ornamental Plants, 5th Ed. ■ Systemic materials are absorbed by the tree and transported upward into the plant where they are ingested by the target pest. Repeat applications may need to be made for effective crawler management until mid-September. An infestation of this armored scale weakens trees allowing successful attack by secondary organisms such as the hemlock borer, Phaenops fulvoguttata, or Armillaria root rot. This key pest also feeds on cedar, Cedrus spp., Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii, pine, Pinus spp., and yew, Taxus spp., but these are not preferred hosts. Populations of HWA are also found in western North America, including Canada, where it has most likel… The Minnesota Department of Agriculture is advising people who have purchased wreaths, boughs and other evergreen decorations this season to burn them or … Like hemlock woolly adelgid, elongate hemlock scale is a sap feeder, which also can cause tree decline and mortality. Elongate hemlock scale—sometimes referred to as Fiorinia scale—is an armored scale found more prevalently in southeastern Pennsylvania. Heavy infestations can have significant impacts on conifers. It has since spread and is now found in the east from northern Georgia to coastal Maine and southwestern Nova Scotia. Scale insects are common insect pests on ornamental trees and shrubs in landscapes. Elongate hemlock scale may also be observed on cedar, Douglas-fir, pine, and yew, which tend to grow adjacent to infested hemlocks. Elongate hemlock scale (EHS) is primarily found infesting eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana), along with fir and spruce in Massachusetts. This insect is originally from Asia and was first discovered in Portsmouth in 2000. Crawlers settle on the underside of the needle, insert their mouthparts, feed for three to four weeks, and then molt into second instar nymphs. This type of treatment is highly effective on 95-99% of the pests as they ingest an ingredient t… Consider having a licensed arborist do the sprayi… New York: John Wiley & Sons. Pirone, P.P. The hemlock woolly adelgid (scientific name Adelges tsugae) was first reported in the Eastern United States in the state of Virginia in 1951, where it was likely brought in on infested nursery stock from Japan. A second spray should be applied in early July, if needed. Mated females start to lay second-generation eggs six to eight weeks after mating. It was first observed in Queens, New York in 1908. Spraying of large trees is very difficult at best. Elongate hemlock scale may also be observed on cedar, Douglas-fir, pine, and yew, which tend to grow adjacent to infested hemlocks. REC, Lower Eastern Shore Use Insecticides With Care. The insect damages hemlock needles by inserting needle-like mouth parts into leaf tissue and removing cell fluids. Elongate hemlock scale outbreaks may increase after a tree has been infested with hemlock woolly adelgid, drought, or other stresses. The adult female's body beneath the waxy cover, eggs, and crawler stage are yellow. Photographer: Eric R. Day Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. In addition to HWA, Safari also controls elongate hemlock scale, another common pest to hemlock trees. 1978, Diseases & Pests of Ornamental Plants, 5th Ed. Fiorinia externa, also referred to as elongate hemlock scale or fiorina scale, is an insect native to Japan that infests eastern hemlock, northern Japanese hemlock, Carolina hemlock, fir, and spruce. Elongate hemlock scale infestation on hemlock. We embody the University's land-grant mission with a commitment to eliminate hunger, preserve our natural resources, improve quality of life, and empower the next generation through world-class education. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press. Most contact insecticides cannot penetrate the waxy covering on scale nymphs and adults, so the crawler stage is the only life stage that these insecticides control. Hemlock Trees and their Pests. The principal host plants include eastern hemlock, T. canadensis, Carolina hemlock, T. caroliniana, and northern Japanese hemlock, T. diversifolia , fir, Abies spp., and spruce, Picea spp. Many of them are agricultural pests, while others prey on trees or other plant life. Egg production and crawler emergence continues for another generation. Hemlock trees are a ‘foundation species’ of forests. The females and eggs are protected by a hard, waxy covering. The systemic insecticide dinotefuran (e.g. However, these insects are very hard to detect. These less preferred host plants, if infested, are usually growing adjacent to infested hemlocks. The pale yellow crawlers are about 1⁄250 inch (0.1 mm) long and have six short legs. Adult male scales only have one pair o… Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. Scale insect numbers increase more slowly on healthy trees compared to trees under stress. This is an ideal time to treat with a registered insecticide formulation applied according to label directions.

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